WILLIAM MCINTOSH CREEK INDIAN (MUSKOGEAN)
Charles Bird King’s portrait of
To begin at the beginning we find
Captain John McIntosh who came from Badenock Scotland
in 1736. John arrived at a town in Georgia called
New Inverness, now known as Darien, Georgia.
John was the son of Benjamin McIntosh, who was the
son of William McIntosh, famous for his part in the
1715 Jacobite uprising in Scotland. Capt. John McIntosh
married Catharine MacGillivray, from this union came
a son William McIntosh who became a Tory captain in
the British service during the War of Revolution in
the colonies. Captain William McIntosh lived among
the Creek native peoples. While living with the Creeks
Captain McIntosh married two Creek women. One was
called Senoya (also spelled SENOIA) This Creek woman
was the mother of William McIntosh Jr. who was to
become a chief of the lower Creek peoples.
Born about 1775 at Coweta on the Georgia frontier
on the west bank of the Chattahoochee River. As was
the custom of many native people young William was
raised by his mother and her eldest brother. His father
Capt. McIntosh was left out completely and left his
son and returned to the Georgia coast where he remarried.
The young William was schooled in the ways of the
Creek peoples by his mother and uncles. At some point
in time the young William taught himself to read and
write English. He spoke fluent English and spent time
in Savannah, Georgia where he felt at ease with both
Creek and white societies. William McIntosh was known
as Tustunnuggee Hutker (White Warrior). During the
war of 1812 the Creek Nation split, the upper Creeks
supported the British, the lower Creeks supported
the United States from 1813 to 1814. This split led
to the Creek Indian wars.
During this conflict William McIntosh led the lower
Creeks against their upper Creek brothers and was
with Andrew Jackson at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
For his service in the victory at this battle he was
commissioned a brigadier general in the U.S. Army.
He was deeply respected by the lower Creek peoples.
In the surviving upper creek towns his esteem was
less than sterling. Chief McIntosh also fought on
the side of the U.S. in the first Seminole war. It
has been said that during the war he played a major
role in the capture of Fort Gadsden on the lower Apalachicola.
In the years following his battles on the side of
the United States Chief McIntosh made many land cessions
by signing treaties in 1814-1818 and 1821. All of
these giving away Creek land – for signing the
Treaty in 1821 McIntosh got 1,000 acres of land at
Indian Springs, GA. He also received another 640 acres
on the Ocmulgee River. McIntosh signed all these treaties
despite the Creek law stating anyone who sold
or gave away Creek land would be killed.
On February 12, 1825 six Creek chiefs plus Chief McIntosh
signed the Treaty of Indian Springs. This gave away
all Creek lands in Georgia and a large tract in Alabama.
This would also move the Creek peoples west. This
was done for a payment of $400,000.00 of which the
McIntosh party would receive $200,000.00 plus Chief
McIntosh would be paid $25,000.00 for his land at
Indian Springs. After this the Creek met and sanctioned
An old enemy named Menawa who had survived the defeat
at Horseshoe Bend led 170 warriors on May 31, 1825
to McIntosh’s home which they burned to the
ground. They killed Chief McIntosh and two other people
who had signed the treaty. Thus ended the story of
the Scottish-Creek Indian, William McIntosh Jr.
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